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叉车稳定性及其他安全问题中英双语版

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Forkliftstabilityandothertechnicalsafetyissues叉车稳定性及其他安全问题Thestabilityofforkliftshasimpactsonsafetyinrespectof:叉车稳

定性会以下的安全问题1.Thelikelihoodofforwardtipover–thatis,theforklifttiltingforward;前向翻车的可能性-是指叉车前倾的情形2.Thelikelihoodofsidetipover–thatis,thefork

lifttiltingtoeitherside;and侧向翻车的可能性-是指叉车向一侧翻车3.Themaximumlevelsofbrakingthatcanbeappliedforanyloadingsituation,andhencethestoppingdistance–toohigh

alevelofbrakingwillinitiateforwardtipover;and在任何条件下的最大的刹车力度,比如载货条件或者高位提升等都可能前向翻车4.Themaximumlevelsofrearwardacceleration-toohighalevelwillalsoinitiat

eforwardtipover.在任何条件下后向极大的加速度或者高位操作可能导致前向侧翻。1.Counterbalanceforklifts平衡重叉车ThisreportandtheassociatedMonashUnive

rsityAccidentResearchCentreproducedguidebook(AGuidebookofIndustrialTrafficManagement&ForkliftSafety)focusoncounterbalanceforkliftsofthestyleshown

below,astheyarethemostcommonstyleusedinVictoria本报告机Monsah大学事故研究中心制作了一个关于平衡重叉车的指导手册。(工业车辆管理及叉车安全手册)Theseforkliftsgenerallyhave:这些叉车具有以下要素•

Thebodywithitscounterbalanceandcagerigidlyattachedtothefrontordriveaxle;车身具有配重块和一个结实的货叉架在叉车前轮轴上•Themastpivotedatornearthefrontaxle;门架可以在

前轮轴上或接近轮轴的位置摆动•Thesteeraxlepivotedaboutitscentresothatthesteertyresremainincontactwiththegrou

ndwheretherearesmallvariationsintheleveloftheoperatingsurface;and转向轴在中心位置转动,这样转向轮就可以保持和地面的接触,即使地面有些小的不平整•

Brakesfittedtothefrontdriveaxleonly.只有前轮有制动•Fortheonebody,forkliftscanbefittedwith:同一类的车身可以配

置•Differentmaststosuitvariousliftheights.Theserangefrom1500to7500mm.Thenumberofmaststagescanvarydependingonavailableheadr

oom.不同高度的门架。这些范围从1500-7500mm。门架梯级依据屋顶高度。•Differentwheelsandtyres–solid,pneumaticshapedcushionorpneumatictyres;不同轮毂及轮胎-实心胎、

充气胎及充气弹性胎等•Arangeofforktynessuitedtotheforkliftoperation,withorwithoutsideshift;and不同货叉类型来适配不同工况,是否具有侧移器及•Othersp

ecialistattachments.其他特别专用属具2.“Stabilitytriangle稳定三角形Therearethreewaysacounterbalanceforkliftcantipov

erforwardsorsideways:有三种可能性导致平衡重叉车侧翻或前翻1.Itcantipforwardwiththecontactpointsofthedriveaxletyresandthegroundactingasthepivot;它前翻的原因可能是接触点

的轮胎和地面原地打转2.Itcantipsidewaystotheleftwithtipoverinitiallypivotingalongalinethroughthelefthandfronttyrecontactpointandthepivotpointof

therearsteeraxle;or它左侧翻的原因可能一个左前轮打转和后转向大幅摆动3.Itcantipsidewaystotherightwithtipoverinitiallypivotingalongalinethroughtherighthandfronttyrec

ontactpointandthepivotpointoftherearsteeraxle.它右侧翻的原因可能一个右前轮子打转和后转向大幅摆动Thesethreelinescombineddefinethestabilitytriangleasshowninthediagram.有三条线来定义了稳

定三角形Notethattherearsteeraxlehasalimittoitstravelarounditspivotpoint,sothatatsomepointsidetipoverchange

stopivotaboutthetwolefthandortworighthandtyres.Atthisstagetheforkliftsometimesstopstippingoverandfallsbackonitswheels.Mostlyhowevert

ipovercontinues.请注意转向轮轴需要到极限,这样的话侧翻可能会改变。在这个条件下侧翻可能会停止和回到承载轮平衡。大部分情况下还是会继续侧翻。3.Centreofmass重心Anyphysicalobjecthasapointloca

tedinthreedimensionswhereitactsasthoughallitsmassislocated.Thisisknownasitscentreofmass.许多物体在三维上都有重心Itisapointaboutwhichtheforkliftwouldba

lanceifplacedontopofapointedsupport.许多情况下叉车获得平衡,只要这个点上给与支持。Whentheforkliftisstationary,theonlyforceactingonthispointistheforceofgrav

ityverticallydown.Forastationaryforklift,providedthiscentreofmassiswithinthestabilitytriangle,theforkliftwillneithertipforwardsorsideways

.当平稳行驶的时候,只有一个作用力就是重力,那就可以保证重心在稳定三角形内。Whenweplaceanincreasingloadontheforktynes,thecentreofmassoftheforkliftandloadcombinedmovesforwardtowardsthefro

ntaxle当我们增加重量在货叉上,载荷中心就会前移Ifsufficientloadisaddedtheforkliftwillreachapointwhereittipsforward.Thisgenerallyoccursifanoperatortriestoliftaloadtha

tismuchtooheavyfortheforklift,andthesteeraxleliftsofftheground.当货物足够重时,中心点临界后,就会前翻。基本上会出现在司机想要超载或者转向轮离地。4.Dynamicforces,centreofmas

sandstability活动受力,重心及稳定性Whenaforklifttravelsonaslope,orwhenaforkliftistravellingaroundacorneratsomes

peed,orwhenaforkliftbrakesoraccelerates,forcesaredevelopedthatactontheforkliftsidewaysortothefrontorrear.当叉车行驶在斜坡或在拐弯的时候,当叉车刹车和加速的时候,受力会作用在

叉车侧面或前后。Ifthesumofalltheforcesactingonthecentreofmassactsuchthattheypassoutsidethestabilitytriangle,thentheforklifteithertipsforw

ardsofsideways.当所有受力作用在重心,导致它们偏出稳定三角形,就会导致侧翻或前翻。5.Tipoversidewaysversustipoverforwards侧翻与前翻Asnotedabove,addingloadtothetynesmakesthecentreo

fmassoftheforkliftandtynescombinedmoveforwardclosertotheforwardtipoveraxisofthestabilitytriangle.Theforkliftbecomespro

gressivelylessstableinrespectofforwardtipover.如上面所述,增加载荷至叉车重心,以及货叉接近前向轴心,会导致重心前移至侧翻的稳定三角形轴线。叉车会渐渐变得不稳定,从而导致前向侧翻。Howeverthe

centreofmassatthesametimeismovingawayfromthetwoothertippingaxis.SotheForkliftbecomesmorestableinrespectoftipping

sideways.无论如何叉车的重心会远离稳定轴线,这样叉车就能保持更稳定。Henceforkliftsaremuchmorelikelytotipsidewayswhenempty–75%oftheseincidentsoccurwhentheforkliftisempty.所以

叉车在空载的时候更容易侧翻-75%的事故发生在空车的时候。Andtheyaremorelikelytotipforwardwhenloaded.而载货后更容易发生前翻。6.Stabilityandraisedloads稳定性与举升的载荷Raisingtheloadre

ducesstabilityinalltipoverdirectionsasthesizeofside,frontorrearforcesrequiredtocauseforwardorsideortipoverarereduced.举升载荷后会降低稳定

性,导致不同方向的侧翻。7.Australianandinternationalstandardsforforkliftstabilityorsafety澳大利亚和国际关于叉车稳定性和安全的标准Alistofthesestandardsisshownb

elow.NotethatinadditionJapan,amajorsupplierofforklifts,hasitsownstandards.一些列的标准显示如下。请注意在日本主要的叉车供应商有其自身的

标准。Andthereareotherstandardsthatalsoimpactonforkliftsafetyincludingstandardsforpalletsandcontainers.

还有其他的标准同样会影响叉车额安全,包括托盘和集装箱STANDARD标准COMMENT说明AS/NZS1425:1999LPGasfuelsystemsforvehicleengines车辆液化燃油系统ForLPGpoweredforklifts液化天然气叉车AS/N

ZS1596:2002ThestorageandhandlingofLPGas存储液化天然气ForLPGpoweredforklifts液化气叉车AS2402-1994Tractionbatteries-Lead-acid铅酸动力电池Forbatterypoweredforkl

ifts电动叉车AS2548.1-1998Batterychargersforlead-acidtractionbatteries-Batterychargersforventedcells动力电池充电器Forbatterypoweredforklifts电动

叉车AS1763-1985Industrialtrucks-Glossaryofterms工业车辆名词术语AS2359-1995Poweredindustrialtrucks–动力工业车辆Part1:GeneralRequirements.Part2:Operation.P

art3:Counterbalancedforklifttrucks-Stabilitytests.Part4:ReachandstraddleforklifPrincipalAustralianstandardforforklifts.Beingprogressivelychangedbythe

adoptionofequivalentISOstandarttrucks-Stabilitytests.Part5:Controlsymbols.Part6:SafetyCode.Part7:Termin

ology.Part8:Palletstackersandhigh-liftplatformtrucks–Stabilitytests.Part9:High-liftridertrucks–Overheadguards

.Part10:Forklifttrucks–Hookontypeforkarms-Vocabulary.Part11:Forklifttrucks–Hookontypeforkarms–Dimensions.Part12:Hazardousareasds澳大利亚叉车标准AS3713-1

989Acoustics-Industrialtrucks-Noisemeasurement叉车遭遇AS4972(Int)-2001Counterbalancedtruckshandlingfreightcon

tainersfor6m(20ft)lengthandabove-Additionalstabilitytests平衡重叉车处理的集装箱AustralianversionofISO10525–additionalnotesonrisksaddedAS49

73-2001Industrialtrucks-Inspectionandrepairofforkarmsinserviceonfork-lifttrucks检查和维修叉车叉齿BasedonISO5057:1993ISO1074:1991Counterbalancedfork-lift

trucks;stabilitytests平衡重叉车稳定性测试EquivalenttoAS2359Pt3:1995ISO2328:1993Fork-lifttrucks;hook-ontypeforkarmsandforkarmcarriages;mountingdi

mensions叉车连接型货叉EquivalenttoAS2359Pt11:1995ISO2330:2002Fork-lifttrucks-Forkarms-Technicalcharacteristicsandt

esting货叉技术特征和测试ISO2331:1974Fork-lifttrucks–Hookontypeforkarms–Vocabulary连接型货叉词汇EquivalenttoAS2359Pt10:1995ISO3184:1998

Reachandstraddlefork-lifttrucks-Stabilitytests前移式和跨腿式叉车稳定性测试EquivalenttoAS2359Pt4:1995ISO5057:1993In

dustrialtrucks;inspectionandrepairofforkarmsinserviceonfork-lifttrucks叉车检查和维修EquivalenttoAS4973:2001ISO5766:1990Palletstackersandhigh

liftplatformtrucks.Stabilitytests托盘堆高机和升降台稳定性测试EquivalenttoAS2359Pt8:1995ISO5767:1992Industrialtrucksoperatinginspecialconditio

nofstackingwithmasttiltedforward;additionalstabilitytest叉车高位前倾ISO6292:1996Poweredindustrialtrucksandtractors-Brakeperformancean

dcomponentstrength动力叉车和拖车的刹车TobeanAustralianStandard-additionalnotesrelatingtoriskISO10525:1997Counterbalancedtruckshandlingfreightconta

inersof6m(20ft)lengthandabove-Additionalstabilitytests平衡重叉车处理的集装箱EquivalenttoAS4972(Int)2001lessAppendixZZISO10658:1996Industrialtrucksoperatin

ginspecialconditionsofstackingwithloadlaterallydisplacedbypowereddevices-Additionalstabilitytest叉车堆垛和直接摆放ISO13284:2003Fork-lifttruc

ks-Fork-armextensionsandtelescopicforkarms-Technicalcharacteristicsandstrengthrequirements货叉延长套ISO13562:2000Industrialvariabl

e-reachtrucks-Part1:Stabilitytests.Part2:Additionalstabilitytestsfortruckshandlingfreightcontainersof6m

lengthandabove.ISO13563-1:2001Singlesideloadingfork-lifttrucks-Part1:Stabilitytests.Part2:Additionalstabilitytestsfortruckshandlingfre

ightcontainersof6mlengthandabove单面载货CoveredinAS2359Pt1:1985:AppendixA5ISO15794:2001Bi-directionalandmulti-d

irectionalfork-lifttrucks-Stabilitytests双向和多向叉车ISO15870:2000Poweredindustrialtrucks-Safetysignsandhazardpictorials-Generalprinciples动力叉车的安全标识ISO

15871:2000Industrialtrucks-Specificationsforindicatorlightsforcontainerhandlingandgrapplerarmoperations叉车灯光8.Australianandinternationalstandards-fork

liftstabilitytests关于叉车稳定性测试的澳大利亚和国际标准TherequiredteststodeterminethemaximumratedcapacityofforkliftsareincludedinAS2359anditsparts,andinAS4972(Int)

.ForotherstylesofforklifttrucksISO13563orISO15794mayapply要标识额度载荷能力测试的标准是AS2359和AS4972。其他类型的叉车标准有ISO13563和ISO15794Inge

neral,foreveryforkliftstyle,therearefourstabilitytests,plusothersasappropriateforthestyleofforklift.总的来说,每种型号的叉车都有自己的稳定性测试,还有其他相关需要的关于

该型号叉车的测试Australianandinternationalstandards-counterbalanceforkliftstabilitytests澳大利亚和国际标准-平衡重叉车Forcounterbalanceforklifts

therearefourtests:关于平衡重叉车有四个测试项目1.Stacking–withthemastverticalandforksatmaximumheight,themaximumloadisdeterminedwhenthefo

rkliftistiltedforwardonaplatformto:堆高-门架垂直提升至最大高度,最高处的载荷能力由前倾至最大时的能力来决定•Aslopeof4%forforkliftsofr

atedcapacityupto4999kg;and在4度的斜坡测试最大至4999kg的载荷能力•Aslopeof3.5%forforkliftswithcapacitiesof5000kgto50000kg在3.5度的斜坡测试至5000

-50000kg载荷能力2.Travelling–withthemastatfullrearwardtiltandforkslowered,themaximumloadisdeterminedwhentheforkliftisti

ltedforwardonaplatformtoaslopeof18%行驶-门架前倾到底和货叉降落,最大载荷能力由18度的坡道行驶的载荷能力来决定3.Stacking–withthemastatfullrearwardtiltandforksatmaximumheigh

t,themaximumloadisdeterminedwhentheforkliftistiltedsidewardsonaplatformtoaslopeof6%堆高-门架后仰到底和货叉在最高处,最大的载荷

能力由6度的斜坡上载荷能力来决定4.Travelling–withthemastatfullrearwardtiltandforkslowered,theforkliftistiltedsidewaysonaplatformto•aslopeo

fupto40%forforkliftsofratedcapacityupto4999kg;and•Aslopeof50%forforkliftswithcapacitiesof5000kgto50000kgdependingontheforkliftcapacityandmaxim

umspeed行驶-门架完全后仰和货叉降落,叉车在侧面倾斜的平台上剩余40%的额定载荷能力-4999kg以下的叉车剩余50%的额定载荷能力-5000-5000kg的叉车Tests1and2primarilydetermineforwardtipoverstability,test3determi

nessidetipoverstabilitywhenloaded,andtest4determinessidetipoverstabilitywhenempty.测试1和测试2初步确定前向稳定性,测试3决定侧面稳定性和测试4决定空载的侧向稳定性。

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